Usually, Koi have a high resistance to diseases, but if they get stressed out, it can break down the immune system of the fish and cause them to become sick so prevention is always the key to a healthy Koi pond.
Causes of stress include; high ammonia level in the water; low dissolved oxygen level in the pond; parasites; too low or too high water temperature; sharp edges in and around the pond; toxic chemicals and not getting the proper nutrition. Diseases can be viral, fungal, bacterial or caused by parasites.
Bacterial Koi Diseases include; Vibrio; Pseudomonas; Aeromonas( Hole-in-the-side) and Flexibacter Columnaris ( fin and tail rot). This is one of the main causes of fish death. Treatments include; nitrofurans, acriflavin, oxytetracycline, chloramphenical, kanamycin, sulfanomides, salt, etc.
For Viral Diseases, unfortunately, there is no effective treatment except to remove growths by scraping. The Fungal Koi Diseases may occur as a secondary infection that is near another fish injury. It will affect damaged or disturbed fish eggs. For treatment, you can try iodine, acriflavin, malachite green, methylene blue, salt or formalin, given as a bath.
For Parasitic Koi Diseases, it can be from; Lernaea or Anchor Worm; Argulus or Fish Lice; Monogenetic Flukes; Ich; Trichophyra or Internal Parasites as most fish will carry some Parasites. Seasonal climatic variations or stressful situations can bring on an infection. For treatment, you can try; Dylox; Masoten; Formalin; Malachite Green, Demilin, Potassium Permanganati or salt, in the whole Koi pond or you can use a bath. as per www.articlealley.com
You may use some chemical treatments, such as external swabbing, injection, feed or a bath in a disinfectant, for 30 to 60 minutes. You can also try external swabbing with antibiotics and/or disinfectants as they have proved to be quite effective.
You should also do partial water changes to improve water quality and help decrease stress, but do this wisely. As I mentioned before, keeping the water clean and oxygenated will keep your Koi stress-free and healthy, so make sure you keep your pond clean for the health of your fishes and other critters!
One of the most important things you will need to look at is the filtration system. Make sure it is big enough to clean your Koi pond properly and that you have the right kinds of filtration as well.
Image source en.wikipedia.org used with permission
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