There have been many people to claim that concrete will crack in cold weather so a pond liner would be better. Let`s examine this by using dams as an example.
There are four principle types of dams; buttress, arch, gravity and embankment. The construction of each dam is figured out by the structure`s proposed use and/or application and its characteristics, the volume of water to be held by the structure, the local materials available to build it and the budget you have to spend on the construction.
The Arch dam is a horizontal arch that faces upstream to resist the water`s force, effectively. Most of these dams are used in narrow canyons and almost always made of concrete.
The Buttress dam is made of a set of angled supports on the down stream side for holding back the water. These dams are for wide canyons that don`t have any bedrock. This type of steel structure and the work involved to build it makes it economically unfeasible in today`s market.
The Gravity dam can stand the force of the water by the ability of its own weight. This dam is made of cement or masonry and uses solid rock for its foundation. It can be over unconsolidated material as long as the water can`t flow under the structure.
An Embankment dam uses local material, like gravel, rocks, sand, clay, etc., for the construction. Sort of like a gravity dam, they use their own weight to hold back the water`s force. The main problem to this dam is the materials are permeable, meaning it allows the water to seep through the structure.
A membrane of clay or rubber liner, like in pond liners, must be built into them to slow down the flow through the dam as it can weaken the structure, but because they are less expensive, they`re the most popular.
The Hoover dam is an Arch dam and was an engineering marvel at the time it was built in the 1930`s. It is made of concrete and steel, therefore concrete ponds are a better choice than liners. To solve your shallow concrete pond from freezing solid, install a horse tank heater in it.
As long as the water level is deeper than the annual freeze, you will be fine and don`t drain your cement pond in winter, if you decide to take your fish inside, leave the water in the pond or you will be removing what protects it from frost as you are now allowing the earth to freeze UNDER the pond, which will expand the dirt and possibly cause cracks! For proper concrete pond construction, you can go to: www.askdoughoover.com
Image source www.morguefile.com
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